WE CALL is composed of selections from the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada’s (TRC) 94 “Calls to Action”. This document is one of the series produced by Cathy Busby that draw attention to the ways that governments obfuscate their accountability towards Indigenous rights and title in public address, policy and service. It accompanies the 500-page report that synthesizes the TRC’s inquiry into the inter-generational legacy of Canada’s Indian Residential School System.
Busby’s selections highlight the ways that governmental, educational and cultural institutions are called on by the TRC to cultivate Indigenous leadership, stewardship and participation within structural systems.
The work’s title, WE CALL, abbreviates the address of each call to action to emphasize the mutual responsibility of the caller(s) to participate in enacting these structural shifts.
在印象派的圈子中，德加是与雷诺阿风格最接近的一位，他们都热爱将生动的巴黎生活作为绘画的主题。德加没有参加过格莱尔（Gleyre）的工作室，很有可能他与未来的印象主义者的第一次会面是在Guerbois咖啡店。埃德加·德加（Edgar Degas）来自于与莫奈、雷诺阿和西斯利完全不同的环境中。法国大革命期间，他的祖父René-Hilaire de Gas在1793年被迫从法国逃到了意大利。他的祖父是一名粮食商人，在意大利手收获了商业的繁荣。
During his lifetime Franz Marc was widely regarded as one of the most promising German painters of his generation. His death in the First World War was mourned as a bitter loss for the art world. It was also a deep personal loss for his surviving friends, Klee and Kandinsky – his other close friend from the Der Blaue Reiter circle, Macke, had died before him on the battlefield.
As a young student, Marc had intended to study philosophy and theology. Then, in 1900, he decided to become a painter instead, and registered at the Munich Art academy. Marc’s early work was relatively naturalistic, but it showed evidence of his admiration for Van Gogh and Gauguin, whose works he had seen at first hand in Paris. He painted and made some prints and small sculptures.
Most of his subjects came from nature. They were landscapes, a few nudes and, increasingly, the animals that would become so central and distinctive in his work. By around 1908 he was starting to intensify his exploration of the movement, behaviour and character of animals. He would spend hours observing and sketching cows and horses in the Bavarian pastures, and watching deer in the wild. Rehe im Schilf (Deer in the Reeds) of 1909 is a characteristic work of this period.
Marc’s and Kandinsky’s endeavours with the Blaue Reiter were part of the Expressionist search for “origins” and for authenticity. In some ways, these were qualities that Marc recognized in the animal kingdom, away from the stultifying effects of civilization. His woodcut, Geburt der Pferde (Birth of Horses) of 1913 envisages a cosmos in which animals represent the forces of creation.
In the summer of 1913, Marc embarked on a major series of large and increasingly experimental works. The most important of these was his Tierschicksale (Fate of the Animals), as discussed on. Finally, in 1914, just as the war was brewing in Europe, he began to paint almost entirely abstract canvases. An example is Kämpfende Formen (Fighting Forms). The conflict described by the title is a cosmic one of opposite energies, bright and dark, symbolically, good and evil, tumbling and fragmenting in combat with one another.
As he matured as an artist, in keeping with Expressionism’s tendency to deal in universals– fundamental ethical issues and philosophies – Marc’s intellectual concerns were with a future age of “the spiritual” and with the redemptive function of art in the modern society that he and his friends found so shallow and materialistic.
In 1916, Marc was one of the 700,000 men killed in the long battle of Verdun. He was on an exploratory mission when he was fatally wounded, by flying shrapnel. In 1937, when the Nazis waged their bitter campaign against modern art in general and Expressionism in particular, they seized 130 works by Marc from public collections and included some of them in the Entartete Kunst (Degenerate Art) exhibitions. His inclusion was controversial, for Marc was a painter widely held in high esteem and an officer who had died fighting for Germany.
Marc’s Red Deer II was confiscated but later declared a “borderline case” and handed back to the Staatsgalerie in Munich in 1940. Another of his most important paintings, Der Turm der blauen Pferde (Tower of Blue Horses) was removed from the exhibition in response to protests from a German officers’ association. It landed for a time in the hands of Hermann Göring (who hoarded a collection of the “best” of the art that the Nazis defamed) and was last seen in the possession of the regime in 1945.
The exhibition “The Cinquecento in Florence. From Michelangelo and Pontormo to Giambologna” is dedicated to the art of the 16th century in Florence, Italy. During the exhibition, more than 70 art works by such artists as Michelangelo, Bronzino, Giorgio Vasari, Rosso Fiorentino, Pontormo, Santi di Tito, Giambologna and Bartolomeo Ammannati will be showcased.
在生活中的艰难困顿中，莫奈和其他印象派画家都受到了朋友们的资助。印象主义者的朋友并不是很多，但是他们慷慨解囊，买下印象派的作品，为印象主义者提供了物质上的支持；更加重要的是，他们也带来了温暖的友谊。业余画家古斯塔夫·凯勒博特（Gustave Caillebotte）便是其中之一，他家境富裕，多次参与印象派的展出。巴黎歌剧院的男中音Jean-Baptiste Faur购买了马奈和其他印象主义者的画作，其中包括了许多莫奈的绘画作品。巴黎的市政官员Victor Chocque只要资金充裕，就会购买印象主义者的画作。Gachet博士也拥有不少莫奈及其友人的作品，他视为珍宝。《艺术时刻》（L’Art de la Mode）的出资人监编辑Ernest Hoschédé在购买了印象派作品之后，还会邀请画家去他的庄园做客。1876年7月，马奈在Hoschédé家中度假两周。Hoschédé的庄园位于巴黎南部的蒙日龙，马奈回赠了Hoschédé一些装饰画板，用来装饰他家城堡的主会客室。
Kandinsky’s art does not reflect and is not burdened by the fate of other Russian avant-garde masters. He left Russia well before the semi-official Soviet aesthetic turned its back on modernist art. He had been to Paris and Italy, even giving Impressionism its due in his earliest works. However, it was only in Germany that he aspired to study. It is obvious that in his preference for Munich over Paris, Kandinsky had been thinking more about schools than about artistic milieu. The qualities of salon Impressionism, a hint of the dry rhythms of modernism (Jugendstil), a heavy “demiurgic stroke” reminiscent of Cézanne, the occasionally significant echoes of Symbolism and much more can be found in the artist’s early works.
Kandinsky began working in Murnau in August 1908. The intensity with which he worked during this period is stunning. In his early Murnau landscapes it is not hard to recognise a Fauvist boiling of colours and an abruptness in their juxtapositioning, the dramatic tension of Expressionism, which was gathering strength at that time, and the insistent texture of Cézanne. Kandinsky was leaving behind the earthly gravitational field of objects for the weightlessness of the abstract world, where the principal coordinates of being up and down, space and weight are lost.
According to the myths of the twentieth century, by leaving reality behind, Kandinsky renounced illusions and, therefore, drew closer to a higher reality. In 1911, Kandinsky participated in the foundation of the group Der Blaue Reiter (Blue Rider). Kandinsky had already acquired a name in his Russian homeland. His On the Spiritual in Art (1912) was known from lectures and other accounts. When, with the “Improvisations” and “Compositions” of 1915-1920, Kandinsky made his final break with the object world, he preserved until the early 1930s the feeling of dynamics, even organic, life in his paintings.
In the summer of 1922, Kandinsky began teaching at the Weimar Bauhaus. It was then, in the first Bauhaus years, that he began working on his “Worlds”, works in which he quite directly contrasted the grandeur of the great and the small. Kandinsky’s fame grew with that of the Bauhaus.
Kandinsky determined the essence of what was happening to him in the context of his environment. On the one hand, the presence of surrealistic overtones in his art is unquestionable. Those splendid carnivals of the subconscious, those “landscapes of the soul,” realized in his simultaneously menacing and festive paintings from the 1910s, had already been in partial contact with the poetics of Surrealism. In Russia he had come to know himself as an artist: Russian motifs and sensations nourished his brush for a long time. In Germany he had become a professional and a great master; a transnational master. In France, where he was already welcomed as a world celebrity, he completed brilliantly and a bit dryly what he had begun in Russia and Germany.
“Magritte’s work constitutes a crucial reference for any artist who intends to reflect on the very production of an image, on the representation or transposition of something real as a likeness. This exhibition will bring together artists who, since the 1980s, have productively entered into dialogue with Magritte’s ‘vache’ period. From George Condo to Gavin Turk, from Sean Landers to David Altmejd”.